1. Hardware Webpage Mapping
Architecture
Describe the characteristics of CPU architecture, including Von Neumann architectures.
Identify and explain the role of the components of the CPU in the fetch-decode-execute cycle.
Explain how performance is affected by the cache size, clock speed and number of cores.
Explain the difference between RISC and CISC types of processors.

Input/output
Describe the use and characteristics of input and output devices.

Primary storage
Explain the functional characteristics of Random Access Memory (RAM), Read Only Memory (ROM), flash memory and cache memory

Secondary storage
Describe the characteristics of contemporary secondary storage technologies including magnetic, optical and solid state.
Explain the functional characteristics of contemporary secondary storage devices in terms of suitability, durability, portability and speed.

Storage requirements
Describe the relationship between data storage units, including bit, nybble, byte, kilobyte and additional prefix multipliers.
Describe data capacity and calculate data capacity requirements.

Additional hardware components
Describe the characteristics and role of additional hardware, including GPU, sound cards and motherboards.

Embedded systems
Describe the use and give examples of embedded systems.

Covered in the following ‘Revision Zones’:

 

Function of the CPU

Von Neumann Architecture

CPU Characteristics

RISC/CISC Processors

Memory

Storage

2 Logical operations
Logical operators
Use AND, OR, NOT and XOR logical operators, combinations of these, and their application in appropriate truth tables to solve problems.

Boolean logic
Simplify Boolean expressions using Boolean identities and rules.

Covered in the following ‘Revision Zone’:

Logic

3 Communication
Networks
Explain the characteristics of networks and the importance of different network types, including LAN and WAN.
Describe the importance of common network topologies, including ring, star, bus and mesh, and their advantages and disadvantages.
Explain the importance of connectivity, both wired and wireless.
Explain and give advantages and disadvantages of circuit switching and packet switching.
Explain the importance and the use of a range of contemporary network protocols, including Ethernet, Wi-Fi, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, FTP and email protocols.
Describe the typical contents of a TCP/IP packet.
Explain the importance of layers and the TCP/IP 5- layer model.
Describe methods of routing traffic on a network and calculate routing costs.

Internet
Explain how Domain Name System (DNS) servers and Internet Protocol (IP) addresses work.

Covered in the following ‘Revision Zones’:

Local Area Networks

Wide Area Networks

Ethernet, WiFi, Protocols

4 Organisation and structure of data
Representation of numbers
Use and convert between denary, binary (up to 16 bits) and hexadecimal counting systems.
Explain the use of hexadecimal notation as shorthand for binary numbers.
Use arithmetic shift functions and explain their effect.
Apply binary addition techniques.
Explain the concept of overflow.

Representation of graphics and sound
Explain the digital storage of graphics.
Explain the digital storage and sampling of sound.
Describe the use of metadata in files.

Storage of characters
Describe how characters are stored as a binary number.
Describe standardised character sets, including Unicode and American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII).

Data types
Describe the concept of data types, including integer, Boolean, real, character and string.

Data structures
Describe, design, interpret and manipulate data structures including records, one-dimensional and two-dimensional arrays.
Select, identify and justify appropriate data structures for given situations.

File design
Design files and records appropriate for a particular application.

Data validation and verification
Explain and use appropriate techniques for data validation and verification.
Design algorithms and programming routines that validate and verify data.

Covered in the following ‘Revision Zones’:

Units

Binary Numbers

Hexadecimal

Characters

Images

Sound

Variables & Data Types

Arrays

Defensive Design

5 Operating systems
Managing resources
Describe the purpose and functionality of the operating system in managing resources, including peripherals, processes, memory and backing store.

Providing an interface
Describe the purpose and functionality of the operating system in providing a user interface.

Utility software
Explain the purpose and functionality of a range of utility software.

Covered in the following ‘Revision Zones’:

Operating Systems

Utility Software

6 Principles of programming
Levels of computer language
Describe the characteristics and purpose of high-level and low-level languages.
Identify and describe situations that require the use of a high-level or a low-level language.
Covered in the following ‘Revision Zone’:

Translators & IDEs

7 Software engineering
Software tools
Explain the role of Integrated Development Environment (IDE) tools in developing and debugging programs.
Covered in the following ‘Revision Zone’:

Translators & IDEs

8 Program construction
Compilers, interpreters and assemblers
Describe the purpose and give examples of the use of compilers, interpreters and assemblers.
Explain the principal stages involved in the compilation process: lexical analysis, symbol table construction, syntax analysis, semantic analysis, code generation and optimisation.
Describe and give examples of programing errors.
Covered in the following ‘Revision Zone’:

Translators & IDEs

The Compilation Process

9 Security and data management
Data security
Describe the dangers that can arise from the use of computers to store personal data.
Describe methods that protect the security of data including access levels, suitable passwords for access and encryption techniques.

Data management
Explain the need for file backups and generations of files.
Explain the need for archiving files.

Compression
Explain how lossy and lossless data compression algorithms are used.
Calculate compression ratios.

Network security
Recognise the importance of network security and describe the dangers that can arise from the use of networks.
Explain the purpose and typical contents of an acceptable use policy and disaster recovery policy.

Cybersecurity
Describe the characteristics and explain the methods of protection against malware, including viruses, worms and key loggers.
Describe the different forms of attack based on technical weaknesses and/or user behaviour.
Describe methods of identifying vulnerabilities.
Explain different ways of protecting software systems during design, creation, testing and use.
Describe the role of internet cookies.

Covered in the following ‘Revision Zone’:

System Security

Compression

10 Ethical, legal and environmental impacts of digital technology on wider society
Ethical
Describe the ethical impacts of digital technology, including issues of privacy and cybersecurity.
Explain the importance of conforming to professional standards, including formal and informal codes of ethical behaviour.

Legislation
Explain how relevant current legislation impacts on security, privacy, data protection and freedom of information.

Environmental issues
Describe the environmental impacts of digital technology on wider society.

Covered in the following ‘Revision Zone’:

Impacts

 

1 Problem solving
Problem solving
Use a systematic approach to problem solving including the use of decomposition and abstraction.
Use abstraction effectively to model selected aspects of the external world in an algorithm or program.
Use abstraction effectively to appropriately structure programs into modular parts with clear, welldocumented interfaces.
 Covered in the following ‘Revision Zones’:

Computational Thinking

2 Algorithms and programming constructs
Algorithms
Use common methods of defining algorithms, including pseudo-code and flowcharts.

Programming constructs
Identify, explain and use sub routines in algorithms and programs.
Identify, explain and use sequence, selection and iteration in algorithms and programs.
Identify, explain and use counts and rogue values in algorithms and programs.
Identify and explain constructs in object orientated programs.
Follow and make alterations to algorithms and programs that solve problems using:
· sequence, selection and iteration
· input, processing and output.
Write algorithms and programs that solve problems using:
· sequence, selection and iteration
· input, processing and output.

Variables
Identify, explain and use local and global variables in algorithms and programs.

Identifiers
Explain why the use of self-documenting identifiers and annotation are important in programs.
Give examples of self-documenting identifiers and annotation.

String handling
Identify, explain and use routines for string handling in algorithms and programs.

Mathematical operations
Identify, explain and apply computing-related mathematical operations in algorithms and programs

Logical operations
Identify, use and explain the logical operators AND, OR, NOT and XOR in algorithms and programs (see Appendix C).

Sorting
Describe the characteristics of merge sort and bubble sort algorithms.

Searching
Explain and use linear and binary search algorithms.

Testing and evaluation
Explain how an algorithm or program works and evaluate its fitness for purpose in meeting requirements.
Evaluate the efficiency of an algorithm or program using logical reasoning and test data

Covered in the following ‘Revision Zones’:

 

Writing Algorithms

 

Variables & Data Types

Program Flow

Operations and String Manipulation

File Handling

 

Procedures & Functions

 

Search Algorithms

Bubble Sort

Merge Sort

Insertion Sort

 

Testing

3 Programming languages
Markup languages
Design, write, test and refine HTML pages using the
following tags:
·         HTML <html>
·         Head <head>
·         Title <title>
·         Body <body>
·         Headings <h1> – <h6>
·         Paragraph <p>
·         Italic <i>
·         Bold <b>
·         Centre align <center>
·         Anchor <a href=”URL”>
·         Unordered List <ul>
·         List Item <li>
·         Blockquote <blockquote>
·         Horizontal Rule <hr>
·         Image <img>
…and their corresponding closures.

Object oriented languages
Design, write, test and refine Java programs within the Greenfoot environment, using the following skills:
· Create new and extend existing classes
· Create new and edit existing objects
· Create new and edit existing worlds
· Write and invoke methods
· Change existing methods
· Create new and edit existing properties (including public, private, static, etc.)
· Add and remove objects from worlds

Assembly language
Design, write, test and refine simple assembly programs using the following mnemonics:
· Input INP
· Output OUT
· Store STA
· Load LDA
· Add ADD
· Subtract SUB
· Branch BRA
· End/Stop/Halt HLT
· Data definition DAT

Covered in the following ‘Revision Zones’:

HTMl and Web Tech

Object Oriented Programming

Assembly Language

4 Data structures and data types
Implementing data structures
Use one-dimensional and two-dimensional arrays, files and records.

Implementing data types
Use a variety of data types, including integer, Boolean, real, character and string.

Variables and constants
Assign, identify and explain the use of constants and variables in algorithms and programs.
Describe the scope and lifetime of variables in algorithms and programs.

 Covered in the following ‘Revision Zones’:

Records & SQL

Arrays

Variables & Data Types

5 Security and authentication
Security techniques
Use appropriate security techniques, including validation and authentication.
Covered in the following ‘Revision Zones’:

Defensive Design